Publications & Presentations

List of publications and presentations about CLEAR and the experiments performed at CLEAR:

General info about CLEAR:

Conference proceedings:

  • IPAC2023: The CLEAR user facility: a review of the experimental methods and future plans (MOPL141).
  • LINAC2022: Status of the CLEAR User Facility at CERN and its Experiments (THPOPA05).
  • IPAC2022: The Design of a Second Beamline for the CLEAR User Facility at CERN (THPOST018).
  • IPAC2022: Generation of Transversely Uniform Bunches from a Gaussian Laser Spot in a Photoinjector for Irradiation Experiments (THPOST019).
  • IPAC2022: Updates, Status and Experiments of CLEAR, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (THPOMS030).
  • IPAC2021: Consolidation and Future Upgrades to the CLEAR User Facility at CERN (WEPAB043).
  • IPAC2021: Status of VHEE Radiotherapy Related Studies at the CLEAR User Facility at CERN (WEPAB044).
  • VHEE2020: CLEAR for Radiotherapy Research (indico page).
  • IPAC2019: Status of the CLEAR Electron Beam User Facility at CERN (MOPTS054).


  • Very High Energy Electron Radiotherapy Conference 2023: Updates, Status and Experiments of CLEAR (link).
  • 11th Beam Telescopes and Test Beams Workshop: Updates, Status and Experiments of CLEAR (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #43: Present and Future of the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #42: Medical applications in the CERN Linear Accelerator for Research (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #41: The CLEAR User Facility at CERN (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #40: CLEAR and X-boxes at CERN (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #39: CLEAR status and review outcome (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #39: CLEAR Summary Autumn 2020 (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #35: CLEAR status and plans (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #34: CLEAR status and plans (link).
  • CLIC Workshop 2019: CLEAR Achievements, Status and Plans (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #32: CLEAR report (link).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #30: CLEAR status and results (link).
  • CLIC Workshop 2018: Status of the CLEAR Facility (link).
  • THZ at CLEAR Meeting #1 (indico page).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #28: CLEAR report (link).
  • A&T Seminar 2017: The CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research – CLEAR (link).
  • THZ at CLEAR Workshop 2017 (indico page).
  • CLIC Project Meeting #27: From CTF3 to CLEAR (link).
  • CLIC Workshop 2017: CLEAR session @ CLIC Workshop 2017 (indico page).
  • CALIFES Workshop 2016 (indico page).
  • CERN Document Server - Nov 2016: The CLEAR facility at CERN (cds).

Journal papers:

  • NIMA - Dec 2017: The CLEAR user facility at CERN (doi).

Experiments performed at CLEAR:

Journal papers:

  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science - Mar. 2022: Analysis of the Photoneutron Field Near the THz Dump of the CLEAR Accelerator at CERN With SEU Measurements and Simulations (doi).
  • Physical Review Accelerators and Beams - Dec. 2021: Strong focusing gradient in a linear active plasma lens (doi).
  • Biomed. Phys. Eng. Express - Dec. 2021: VHEE beam dosimetry at CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research under ultra-high dose rate conditions (doi).
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science - Mar. 2021: Electron-Induced Upsets and Stuck Bits in SDRAMs in the Jovian Environment (doi).
  • Physics Letters A - Mar. 2021: Diffractive shadowing of coherent polarization radiation (doi).
  • Communications Physics - Feb. 2021: An experimental study of focused very high energy electron beams for radiotherapy (doi).
  • Scientific Reports - Feb. 2021: Evaluating very high energy electron RBE from nanodosimetric pBR322 plasmid DNA damage (doi).
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B - Nov. 2020: Influence of heterogeneous media on Very High Energy Electron (VHEE) dose penetration and a Monte Carlo-based comparison with existing radiotherapy modalities (doi).
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement: A Measurement Method based on RF Deflector for Particle Bunch Longitudinal Parameters in Linear Accelerators (doi).
  • Scientific Reports - Jun. 2020: The challenge of ionisation chamber dosimetry in ultra-short pulsed high dose-rate Very High Energy Electron beams (doi).
  • Scientific Reports - May 2020: Enhancing particle bunch-length measurements based on Radio Frequency Deflector by the use of focusing elements (doi).
  • Physical Review Accelerators and Beams - Feb. 2020: Noninvasive bunch length measurements exploiting Cherenkov diffraction radiation (doi).
  • Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Physics Research Sect. B - Oct. 2019: A magnetic spectrometer to measure electron bunches accelerated at AWAKE (doi).
  • Physical Review Accelerators and Beams - Feb. 2019: A beam-based (sub-)THz source at the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research facility (doi).
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science - Jan. 2019: Mechanisms of Electron-Induced Single-Event Latchup (doi).
  • Physical Review Letter - Nov. 2018: Emittance Preservation in an Aberration-Free Active Plasma Lens (doi).
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A - Nov. 2018: Overview of the CLEAR plasma lens experiment (doi).
  • IEEE - Jun. 2017: High-Energy Electron-Induced SEUs and Jovian Environment Impact (doi).

Conference proceedings:

  • IPAC2023: VHEE and ultra high dose rate radiotherapy studies in the CLEAR user facility (THPM078).
  • IPAC2023: Electron beam studies on a beam position monitor based on Cherenkov diffraction radiation (THPL146).
  • IPAC2023: Application of Beam-based Alignment to the CLEAR facility (WEPL025).
  • IPAC2023: Experimental generation of the transversely uniform electron bunches at the CLEAR facility at CERN (TUPL119).
  • IPAC2023: A Novel Fibre Optic Monitor for VHEE UHDR Beam Monitoring: First Tests at CLEAR (THPL041).
  • IPAC2023: Dual-Scattering Foil Installation at CLEAR (THPM073).
  • IPAC2023: The use of beam instrumentation for real time FLASH dosimetry: experimental studies in the CLEAR facility (THPM060).
  • IPAC2023: Development of reliable VHEE/FLASH passive dosimetry methods and procedures at CLEAR (THPM059).
  • LINAC2022: Methods for VHEE/FLASH Radiotherapy Studies and High Dose Rate Dosimetry at the CLEAR User Facility (THPOPA06).
  • IPAC2022: A Beam Position Monitor for Electron Bunch Detection in the Presence of a More Intense Proton Bunch for the AWAKE Experiment (MOPOPT053).
  • IPAC2022: Beam Loss Localisation with an Optical Beam Loss Monitor in the CLEAR Facility at CERN (MOPOPT045).
  • IPAC2022: Linearity and Response Time of the LHC Diamond Beam Loss Monitors in the CLEAR Beam Test Facility at CERN (MOPOPT046).
  • IPAC2022: VHEE High Dose Rate Dosimetry Studies in CLEAR (THPOMS031).
  • IPAC2022: Testing the Properties of Beam-Dose Monitors for VHEE-FLASH Radiation Therapy (THPOMS029).
  • IBIC2021: Beam Position Detection of a Short Electron Bunch in Presence of a Longer and More Intense Proton Bunch for the AWAKE Experiment (MOPP17).
  • RADECS2021: Pulsed Electron Beam induced SEU Effects in a SRAM memory (doi).
  • IPAC2021: Consolidation and Future Upgrades to the CLEAR User Facility at CERN (WEPAB043).
  • IPAC2021: Development and Testing of a Cherenkov Beam Loss Monitor in CLEAR Facility (WEPAB021).
  • IPAC2021: Status of VHEE Radiotherapy Related Studies at the CLEAR User Facility at CERN (WEPAB044).
  • NSREC2020: SEU characterization of commercial and custom-designed SRAMs based on 90 nm technology and below (link).
  • IBIC19: Cherenkov Diffraction Radiation as a tool for beam diagnostics (THAO01).
  • IPAC2019: Connection of 12 GHz high power RF from the XBOX 1 high gradient test stand to the CLEAR electron linac (WEPRB063).
  • LINAC18: Beam Dynamics Studies and Instrumentation Tests for Bunch Length Measurements at CLEAR (MOPO020).
  • IPAC18: First Experiments at the CLEAR User Facility (THPMF014).
  • IPAC18: Relative Range Independence of Very-High Energy Electron Beams in Inhomogeneous Media and Comparison with other Radiotherapy Modalities (MOPML023).
  • IPAC18: The Awake Electron Spectrometer (THPML118).
  • IPAC2017: Relative Insensitivity to Inhomogeneities on Very High Energy Electron Dose Distributions  (THPVA139).
  • ICALEPCS2017: Industrial stepping motors integration in the UNICOS-CPC framework (THPHA144).

PhD Thesis:

  • University of Oxford (2022): Studies for upgrading and optimising the CLEAR beamline, and generating uniform electron-beam profiles for irradiation experiments (link)
  • University of Cambridge (2021): Convolutional neural networks and photonic crystals for particle identification at high energy collider experiments (link).
  • University of Naples (2021) : Measurements of wakefields and bunch length with beam in linear electron accelerators: a case study at CLEAR  (link).
  • University of Oxford (2020): Development of a beam position monitor for co-propagating electron and proton beams (link).
  • University of Strathclyde (2020): Investigation of focused Very High Energy Electrons (VHEEs) as a new radiotherapy method (link).
  • University of Manchester (2019): VHEE Radiotherapy Studies at CLARA and CLEAR facilities (link).
  • University of Jyväskylä (2019): Single-Event Radiation Effects in Hardened and State-of-the-art Components for Space and High- Energy Accelerator Applications (link).
  • University of Oslo (2019): Emittance growth and preservation in a plasma-based linear collider (link).


  • CERN EDMS - Feb 2021: Preliminary irradiation tests of surgical masks with 200 MeV electrons at CLEAR (edms No.2477002).
  • EAAC2017: Plasma lens experiments at the CLEAR Test Facility, CERN (presentation).

News articles:

  • CERN News - April 2023: From CERN to Jupiter: Juice embarks on its historic journey (link).
  • CERN Courier - March 2023: CLEAR highlights and goals (link).
  • National Geographic - December 2022: How do you kill hard-to-reach tumors? Particle physics is on the case (link FR) (link EN).
  • Le Figaro Sciences - November 2022: Le futur de la radiothérapie s’écrit au Cern à Genève (link).
  • France 24 - October 2022: Particle physics pushing cancer treatment boundaries (link FR) (link EN).
  • CERN News - June 2021: CLEAR study paves the way for novel electron-based cancer therapy (link).
  • Manchester University News - February 2021: Critical step forward for radiotherapy with a new method to treat cancer (link).
  • University of Strathclyde News - February 2021: High energy radiotherapy could ‘paint’ tumours to avoid harming healthy tissue (link).
  • Accelerating News - January 2021: VHEE2020 workshop attracts over 400 researchers (link).
  • CERN Courier - December 2020: Very high-energy electrons for cancer therapy (link).
  • BE Newsletter - February 2020: CERN’s CLEAR facility (link).
  • CERN Courier - September 2019: CERN and ESA join forces in harsh environments (link).
  • CERN News - July 2019: CERN and ESA forge closer ties with cooperation protocol (link).
  • PhysicsCentral - November 2018: Surprising Discovery Gives "Plasma Lenses" a Clearer Future (link).
  • CERN Courier - November 2018: Plasma lenses promise smaller accelerators (link).
  • Accelerating News - July 2018:  First experimental results from the CLEAR facility at CERN (link).
  • CERN Courier - October 2017: CLEAR prospects for accelerator research (link).